Self - Efficacy
Since Bandura published his seminal paper, "Self-Efficacy" the subject has become one of the most important topics for psychologists and educators because self efficacy plays a role about how people think,behave and motivate.
When you face some difficulties, do you think you can accomplish your goal or do you give up? This challange situations can be like joining competition, being a teacher in class, speaking in front of the audience etc. Self-efficacy, or your belief to deal with various situations, can play a role how you feel about yourself, but whether or not you achieve your goals in life successfully. Self-efficacy is defined as a person’s belief in his/her ability to accomplish in a situation.
Self-efficacy is also related to self confidence.the people who has a self confidence also needs motivation to meet him/her targets and self-efficacy leads people to increase motivation.self-efficacy starts when people ask themselves “can ı accomplish the task?”. Also, capacity of self-efficancy of people affects of producing behaviour.for example, while one student can solve the mathematic problems that are related to his/her stage, he/she cannot solve the other high level problems.we can say by looking at this example, a student has a high sense of self efficacy for solving basic problem, he has a low sense of self-efficacy in order to solve the comlex problems.
Individuals with a strong sense of self-efficacy overcome the problem that they face easily instead of giving up. On the other hand, individuals with a low sense of self-efficacy give up doing the task because of lack of confidence or belief.also, self-efficacy is not enough for being successful. High sense of self-efficacy, at the lack of knowledge, does not perform .this influences only expected outcome
People with a low sense of self-efficacy
- They avoid challenging tasks that are given them
- They claim that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilities
- They focus on negative outcomes
- They can lose confidence in personal abilities
People with a high sense of self-efficacy
- They can solve the problem that they face
- Their self confidence is high
- They respect themselves ability
- Their courage and interest develop
- They overcome the complex tasks
Sources of self-efficacy :
Self-efficacy is a belief that is developed by experiences. People improve themselves through observation of others or experiencing directly. It is obvious that elf-efficacy is developed by social impact that people take from environment. According to a. Bandura, there are four important sources of self-efficacy.
- Mastery experiences: Success builds a belief in one's personal efficacy. Failures undermine it, especially if failures take place before,a sense of efficacy is established.
- Social modeling: A lot of expectations come from others experiences. Observing others successes can ensure that people expect to achieve like others.
- Social persuation : Self-efficacy is changed by promoting to be successful. Encouraging someone causes to change their expectations
- Psychological responses: That people has a good condition as physical and psychological when he/she starts behaving. Posibility of attemp is increased
The most effective of this sources is experiences. It is more effective than observation. Sense of self-efficancy affects targets, how much times spend to meet their targets and how they respond against failure. In order to strenghthen studens’ self-efficacy, teachers should make available lessons to personality needs of students, students should be used the approaches of group systems and students should not be compared each other by the teachers